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The word "statistics" is used as a synonym for the word "data".

Statistics is a branch of knowledge that combines the principles and methods of working with numerical data characterising mass phenomena.

Statistics also refer to the field of practical activity aimed at the collection, processing, analysis of statistical data.


Statistics can be defined as the collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data. This is a special method that is used in various fields of activity, in the solution of various tasks.

The statistics study the quantitative side of mass social phenomena in unbreakable connection with their qualitative side or their content. Statistics allow us to identify and measure the patterns of development of socio-economic phenomena and processes, the interrelations between them.

The patterns in which necessity is inseparably linked in every single phenomenon with randomness and only in a variety of phenomena manifests itself as law are called statistical.

The subject of statistical study is - sets:

  • Sets of single-quality, 
  • Variable phenomena. 

Examples of statistical aggregates: agricultural enterprises, families, marriages, students, citizens of a country.

A statistical aggregate is a set of units that have mass, homogeneity, definite integrity, the interdependence of the states of individual units, and the presence of variation.

The units of a statistical aggregate are characterised by common properties, which are called indicators in statistics, i.e. Under the qualitative homogeneity of the aggregate is meant the similarity of units (objects, phenomena, processes) for any significant features, but the difference by some other criteria.


  • The main feature of statistics is that it studies the quantitative aspect of qualitatively defined mass social phenomena under given conditions of place and time. Quantitative characteristic statistics expresses through numbers, which are called statistical indicators.
  • The statistical indicator reflects the result of measuring the units of the population and the population as a whole. The statistical indicator has three obligatory attributes: quantitative certainty, place and time.
  • Another feature of statistics as a science is that it characterises the structure of social phenomena.

When analysing the structure, the components of socio-economic phenomena are identified. These components are compared with the phenomenon in general and among themselves. This structure is compared with other similar structures, as well as with a given (planned, normative, etc.) And identifying the causes of deviations. Proposals for optimising the structure are being prepared. In the process of its analysis, the grouping method is used.

Every social phenomenon is characterised by changes not only in space but also in time. Changes in space, i.e. In statics, are revealed by analysis of the structure of a social phenomenon, and changes in time, i.e. In dynamics, by studying the level and structure of the phenomenon. This is another feature of statistics as a science.

The dynamics analysis includes:

  1. Establishing the level of a social phenomenon at a certain moment or time interval.
  2. Identify the nature of change for each period.
  3. Determining the magnitude and rate of change.
  4. Establishment of the main trend of changes, their patterns and compilation of a statistical forecast.

Statistics is a social science, which studies the quantitative side of qualitatively defined mass socio-economic phenomena and processes, their structure and distribution, spatial placement, movement in time, reveals the existing quantitative dependencies, trends and patterns in specific conditions of place and time.
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