ENGG955 | Major Assessment Task Assessment 4 | IT

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In recent times fabrication of lightweight structures for automobiles and considering the structural performance at the same time has become a trend. Among which resistance spot welding is one of the major challenges in ultra-thin steel for the fabrication of vehicle structures. In this connection, an investigation is carried out with galvanized low-carbon steel to different strips inserted. Among which Cu55Ni45 of 0.12mm thick strip has given a great end results which increased the electrode life by 300%

[1]. The inserted strip not only increased the life span, it also improved the weld quality and reduced the tip temperature of the electrode

[2]. Many other methods are developed for the fabrication of steel sheets. Ultrasonic spray deposition method is one of them, which is used to synthesised for the metal laminate composites in the semi-solid regime, this has given a great result of 49% increase in yield strength (nano particle of Silicon carbide (SiC) and reinforced composites of magnesium (AZ31) interface) and due to the presence of liquid phase during consolidation a secure bonding has shown in the reinforced layer. However, the presence of liquid phase in the particles mechanical properties are reduced

[3]. In addition, silver mirror reaction is carried out on graphene oxide sheets in order to produce flexible silver-nanoparticle films. These films showed a great flexibility in processing and provides high reflectivity towards the assembly of micro-scopic films. Furthermore, this study also showed insulating particle films, including metal, semiconductors and nanoparticle films are feasible for preparation of these substance by the use of graphene oxide sheets

[4]. Besides other ways of producing these sheets is diamond-like carbon (DLC) coat and features of sub-millimeter size of high iron-beam process is done on the die surface so as to improve the wear-resistance. In addition, for measuring adhesion strength and mechanical properties in between the diamond-like carbon coating and the substance a nano-indentation test is introduces and the wear-resistance of the diamond-like carbon coating is tested by micro-bending

[5]. Meanwhile, sandwich sheet material of stainless steel containing three variants Hybrid Stainless Steel Assembly (HSSA), Cambridge Brazed Steel Sheet (CAMBOSS), and Cambridge Brazed Steel Sheet (CAMBRASS) have been studies for many automobile constructions. This study shows that the sandwich structure with low thickness of sheet gives low areal density and high beam stiffness. Furthermore, these sheets can be thinner, lighter and stiffer simultaneously than that of the monolithic aluminium sheets

[6]. On the other hand, deformation in ultra-thin sheets depends on the number of grains in the direction of thickness of the sheet, also hardening and initial yield limit reduces with the decrease in the sheet thickness and due to the orientation of the grains are different the deformation is no longer uniform when in tension

[7]. Coming to the formation of lightweight materials, aluminium and magnesium presents best properties over steel, this can be proven in the case of BMW M3, the weight of front hood of this vehicle has 42% less weight than that of standard front steel hood. While in the case of hot forging process the conventional formed welded steel sheets id replaced with aluminium hot forged in wheel suspension arms of automobiles in order to save lots of space and the weight of the vehicle. In addition, steering column made with aluminium is provided for driver safety as it bends sideways during crash accident, safety can be increased in case bumper beam made of stainless steel which can absorb high crash of engines

[8]. Furthermore, the incremental sheet forming (ISF) is tested on three materials (aluminium alloy AA2024-T3, the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and the magnesium alloy AZ31B-O). The maximum wall inclination for these alloys which are safe are 40, 60,and 45 for aluminium, magnesium, and titanium respectively and if the angle of inclination of the material increases the worse the surface roughness

[9]. Additionally, vulcanised fiber which is a sustainable material can also be a lightweight material design which can be used for certain application, the vulcanised fiber has an average tensile strength of 90 mega pascal when it is at 1.2 g/cm3 of density and its specific strength of steel is about 90%. On the other hand, magnesium and aluminium are lightweight materials which can be used for single applications. However, at high temperatures these two materials get cracks during hot extrusion

[10]. This paper advances a path for choosing the correct procure of material selection, and manufacturing process of the lightweight materials and ultra-thin sheet forming.

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