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Objective: In this lab we will get familiar with VMware Player software, configure and run the virtual machine (VM) with Win XP operating system (OS) image. It will be called XP1. In the future labs the XP1 will play important part in our simple design virtual network. Further, we will get more familiar with VMware Player and Wireshark software. Wireshark is a network protocol analyser and sniffer. It lets you capture and interactively browse the traffic running on a computer network (Foundation). It is also a basic tool for observing the messages exchanged between executing protocol entities (Foundation).


Check if you have the following software and VM images installed on your host computer.
a. VMware Player software
b. Centos 5.5 for VM
i. Login: root
ii. Password: 123456

c. XP1 (Copy of the XP installation)
i. Login: Administrator
ii. Password: teaching
d. XP2 (Copy of the XP Installation)
i. Login: Administrator
ii. Password: teaching

Running Virtual Machines
    
1. Open VMware Player and click on the Open Virtual Machine tab as shown in figure 2. Then, navigate to the folder where your XP 1 can be found (C:Virtual MachinesITC542). Locate the executable file with extension .vmx and load the image of the first XP1 machine to the library. Don’t start it yet, you need to configure the XP 1 machine as explained in below steps:
 


Figure 2 VMware Player - Open a Virtual Machine - Navigate and select XP1 .vmx file.

a. For each XP installation setup set the VM memory to 512 MB
b. Go to Player > Manage > VM Machine Settings > Hardware > Network Adapter and  make sure network connection (under the network adapter) is set to “bridge” mode.
i. Note: For explanation what the difference is between bridge, NAT or host-only mode check VMware Player manual available online. 


c. Run the XP 1 virtual machine. Credential for XP machines is:

XP1 (Copy of the XP installation)
i. Login: Administrator
ii. Password: teaching

d. In XP1 setup the IP address (right click on My Network Places on XP1 desktop > Properties > LAN Local Area Connection > right click > Properties > Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) > Properties > select “ Obtain an IP address automatically”)
i. Note: Customize your VM XP1 Desktop wallpaper, for example using Paint so that your screenshots can prove who you are and you won’t get confused while using both XP machines at the same time.


Figure 5 - IP configuration


SECTION 2

1. Download and install the Wireshark software:
a. Note: In order to browse the internet you may have to setup the proxy. In your Internet Explorer go to Tools > Internet Options > Connections > LAN Settings > Proxy server > tick the box “Use a proxy server (…) or VPN connections) and type:
i. Address: 10.6.8.12
ii. Port: 8080
b. Note: When you will try to browse the internet you may have to authenticate the user by typing:
i. Username: students.localCSU_ID_Number
ii. Password: Your_CSU_Password 
c. Go to http://www.wireshark.org/download.html and download and install the Wireshark binary for your computer.
2. Download the Wireshark user guide.
a. Note: The Wireshark FAQ has a number of helpful hints and interesting information, particularly if you have trouble installing or running Wireshark.

ICMP Ping and Traceroute/Tracert
Objective: Understand common network configurations in VMware Player, investigate sub-netting based on simple network example, investigate ICMP Ping and Trace route, use Wireshark to examine ICMP Ping and Trace route.

Note: All your screen shots must show your IP address provided to you in class.

SECTION 1

Let’s have a quick overview of the common network configurations in VMware Player, setup the Linux and XP1 computer network settings, and investigate ICMP Ping and Trace route commands using Wireshark.

1. Open VMware player and check if your VMs are available for you in the library:
a. You should have XP1 VM already loaded to the library. If not, click Open a Virtual Machine in VM ware Player and navigate to the folder with your virtual machines, then select and load XP1 .vmx executable file.
b. Repeat the same steps for the Centos Linux VM and load it to the library.
 


Figure 3 Both XP1 and Centos Linux loaded to the VMware Player's library.

2. For both VMs, click Edit virtual machine settings > Hardware > Network Adapter > NAT

 Figure 4 Setup Network Adapter settings to NAT for both VMs.
3. Start both VMs.
a. Note: Make sure that all VMs have the same network configuration. Otherwise, the ICMP request and Trace route will not be successful.
4. While both VMs are starting, read about VMware Player Common Network Configurations:
 
Figure 5 Understanding Common Networking Configurations (VMWare, 2014)
a. Note: Bridged networking configures the virtual machine as a unique identity on the network, separate from and unrelated to the host system. The virtual machine is a full participant in the network. It has access to other machines on the network, and other machines on the network can contact it as if it were a physical computer on the network.
 
Figure 6 Bridged Networking Configuration (VMWare, 2014)
b. Note: NAT networking:
 
Figure 7 Configuring Network Address Translation (VMWare, 2014)

5. Go to the XP1 VM machine and setup static IP address (Class C mask):
a. For XP1 machine:
i. User name: Administrator
ii. Password: teaching
b. In XP1 setup the first IP address given to you (something similar to 192.168.100._ or 192.168.150._), class C subnet mask (255.255.255.0) and default gateway (the first three octets are the same as in the first IP address, the fourth octet is: .1, so it should be something like 192.168.100.1 or 192.168.150.1). Go to the My network place > Network Connections > Local Area Connection Properties > TCP/IP Properties > Use the following IP address and fill the following fields:
i. IP address
ii. Subnet mask
iii. Default gateway
c. Take a screen shot and paste it here.

Figure 8 Example of TCP/IP settings

6. Go to the Centos Linux VM machine and setup static IP address (Class C mask):
a. For Centos Linux use:
i. User name: root
ii. Password: 123456
1. In order to go to Graphical User Interface (GUI) enter command: startx
b. Go to Network Configuration (System > Administration > Network) and edit the Ethernet device (Nickname: eth0) and Statically setup the IP addresses (it have to be the same IP address as the default gateway’s IP address in XP1 VM so the fourth octet of the IP address is: .1) and class C subnet mask (255.255.255.0) to connect to XP1 so fill the following fields:
i. Address
ii. Subnet Mask
c. Go to Terminal and check whether IP address has changed by entering ifconfig command.
i. Note: Check references for how to setup a shortcut to Terminal in Centos.
d. If not, restart the network interface by entering the following command:
i. etc/init.d/network restart
ii. Take a screen shot and paste here.

Figure 9 Example of Network configuration.
 
Figure 10 Terminal > ifconfig    

7. Ping and traceroute/tracepath to prove the connectivity between the Linux machine (router) and the XP1 machine. Complete these two functions from both the sides
a. Take a screen shot and paste here.
b. Note: If you can’t Ping the XP1 machine, then remove the windows firewall to allow the ICMP protocol (tick the “allow incoming echo request” in ICMP settings

(Go to XP1 Computer > Control Panel > Windows Firewall > Advanced > ICMP Settings > tick the box for Allow incoming echo request) or simply turn off Windows Firewall.

Note: The ping displays for example the round-trip time (RTT) which in the ping statistics shows an average time between ICMP request and reply or time-to-live (TTL)
c. Note:  In Centos Linux ping by default sends ICMP requests indefinitely. In order to limit the number of counts use –c counts command. For example: ping 192.168.150.59 –c 4. You can define a number of counts in Win XP by using the argument -n counts which indicates that counts ping messages should be sent, for example ping 192.168.150.58 –n 10 will send 10 ping messages.
d. Go to both VM machines and investigate simple sub-netting case by setting up static IP addresses and a different mask, for example 255.255.255.192 (so VMs have Class C IP addresses with /26 subnet mask). /26 mask provides 4 subnets. Try to setup IPs in the same and different subnets and ping between VMs. Investigate different ping results normal replies, error messages, such as Request timed out. or Network is unreachable.

SECTION 2

Let’s use Wire shark to monitor ICMP by capturing the packets generated by the Ping program (Ross).

1. Open the Wireshark in XP1 or Centos Linux VM.
a. Note: Centos Linux should have Wireshark software installed by default.

2. Start the capture using Wireshark.
3. Ping the other machine on the network. When the Ping program terminates, stop the packet capture in Wireshark and save it to your desktop.
4. Select an ICMP request packet and relate to the following explanation and Figure 9 and 10. Below you can find the screenshot of the Wireshark output, after “icmp” has been entered into the filter display window. The packet was sent from a private IP address behind NAT (192.168./16). We see that the IP datagram within this packet has protocol number 01, which is the protocol number for ICMP. This means that the payload of the IP datagram is an ICMP packet. Search for the same information in your ICMP request packet.
 
Figure 11 Wireshark output for Ping program with Internet Protocol expanded.


5. Figure 10 focuses on the same ICMP but has expanded the ICMP protocol information in the packet contents window. Observe that this ICMP packet is of Type 8 and Code 0 – a so-called ICMP “echo request” packet. Also note that this ICMP packet contains a checksum, an identifier, and a sequence number. You can investigate this topic further by reading the course book page 246.