The international law is formed by the international legal norms that regulate the laws of the States. International agreements and treaties, diplomatic notes, amendments and protocols are part of this branch of law.
With regard to the aforementioned international treaties, it is important that we bear in mind that they must be done in writing as a general rule, although it is true that there are also some that are based basically on what has been an oral agreement between the states.
In addition to all of this, we must emphasise that there are different types of international treaties. Thus, we can make classifications of them based on the subject they are dealing with, the duration of the same, the type of obligations they impose for both parties or the fact that they allow the adhesion of new members to them. In this way, we would find ourselves with international political treaties, of fixed duration, law treaties, open treaties and commercial treaties.
In the same way, we cannot ignore that when carrying out the establishment of an international treaty it is necessary to fulfil the following phases:
- The usual adoption of the text
- The corresponding authentication
- Finally, the provision of consent.
Among the most recent and important international treaties, we would highlight, for example, the Pacific Treaty of Security dating from 1951, the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty of 1972, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996 or the famous Kyoto Protocol that was signed in 1997 and that revolves around meaning of climate change.
The norms belonging to international law can be bilateral (between two parties) or multilateral (more than two parties). States usually undertake to apply these standards in their territories and with a status higher than national standards.
The most remote antecedent of an international law agreement took place in 3,200 BC when the Chaldean cities of Lagash and Umma agreed to delimit their borders after a war. At a general level, international law has always been focused on preserving peace and preventing the outbreak of armed conflicts.
International law can be divided into:
- Public and
The public international law means the set of legal principles governing relations between States. Individuals, therefore, are not immediate subjects of its norms.
The private international law, meanwhile, has as its main objective the resolution of conflicts of international jurisdiction. It is responsible for defining what is the applicable law and determining the legal status of foreigners.
Another branch of international law is international humanitarian law. In this case, it is the rules that, in times of war, protect civilians who are not part of the conflict. The international humanitarian law seeks to limit the human suffering inherent in armed confrontations.
IMPORTANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
The laws are formulated with different purposes. Here are the important points that were considered while formulating the international law:
- The main motive is to save the coming generations from the dangerous repercussions of war.
- Restating the belief in the basic human rights, maintaining equal rights for women and men, worth and dignity of the people.
- To maintain the respect and justice for the obligations taking place due to the treaties and other various sources.
- The promotion of the progress of society and maintaining a better standard of lives with more freedom.