Manipulation and misappropriation is one of the ethical issue associated with KM. Due to data manipulation large number of uncertainties arises in KM system. Where the main objective of hacker is to steal the information of the organization and use that information for illegal purpose. It is difficult to identify whether data manipulation is carried out in the KM system or not. Intruder can manipulate the data available in the KM system so that system cannot able to generate meaningful knowledge for the organization. By performing data manipulation intruder can degrade the reputational value of Organization in market. The hacker can misuse the organizational information, control KM system and may decrease the value of organization. Intruder can also alter the data present in the KM system due to data manipulation system generate incorrect information.
Manipulation and misappropriation are fallen under ethical issues of knowledge management. Ethics relates to code of conduct and based on morality and values. In knowledge management, manipulation and misappropriation are related to updating knowledge in a wrong way or intentionally manipulate knowledge in knowledge management system. These acts violates knowledge ownership and power in context of knowledge management in organisations. Hence, breach the intellectual property rights. It is important to protect Intellectual rights as knowledge is not an ordinary resource and anyone can be claimed on it to generate wealth. Another issues is related to organizational employees. The moral obligations of individuals exploited when sense towards organization’s use of power. As a result, reduces participation in knowledge process and encourage them to manipulate knowledge when extract information. It is important to maintain trust, fairness, and justice to simulate individuals’ participation in knowledge management process. Organizations should gain trust of their employees to prevent knowledge hoarding and knowledge loss.
The manipulation and misappropriation occurs in the knowledge management are as follows:
Distortion during the refinement, acquisition or creation: This may involve the purposeful issues to gather the related knowledge or purposeful miscoding of knowledge or information, which is being refined, acquired ore created.
Distortion while providing services and presentation: Distortion while providing services with the introduction of biases like pruning or omission of knowledge which should be included, or exaggeration of misleading knowledge or less relevant. The misappropriation during presentation is misrepresentation of political benefits, economic, motivated by personal, or facts.
Misappropriation during retrieval and storage: This occurs only if the methods of retrieval and storing the information is not appropriate and further, which can lead to security issues and can also invites malwares and viruses into the system.
Inaccurate field service report: A field service representative defines the information submitted after each and every repair. While providing the particular code for each repair step would take too long with the voice recognition system if used by the organization.
Manipulation in search engines: At several times the order of search results from search engines have completely dependent on the payment of the merchants.
In Knowledge management scenario, there are more unethical or negative factors that may affect the overall probability of managing the knowledge is reduced. These issues are named as distortion, suppression and misappropriation and some other activities. These activities may affect the management processes of knowledge. Following factor outlined manipulation and misappropriation:
Distortion- It is one of the major area where manipulation is performed to a specific knowledge area.
Suppression- Creation of obstacles that is very difficult to create and access overall knowledge in an effective manner.
Misappropriation- Theft modification and irrelevant knowledge area is one of the major area where knowledge management suffers.
These factors are coming under dark side goals of knowledge management.
In order explain knowledge management, following categories are outlined:
Ø The avid learner.
Ø The Data Snob.
Ø The frightened Hermit.
In most of the organization’s, knowledge management issues are as follows.
1. Organizational justice.
2. Knowledge hoarding.
4. Manipulation and misappropriation of knowledge.
5. Privacy and confidentiality.