What do you mean by fragmentation in networking?

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What do you mean by fragmentation in networking?

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  • 11 Feb, 2019

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In networking, fragmentation is performed by the network layer when maximum size of datagrams is larger than the maximum size of data. It can be held into frames. These frames are often known as Maximum transmission unit (MTU). As per my opinion, network fragmentation plays a very important role in networking to enhance overall processing of a network. Network fragmentation can be performed in following step-

Step. Data packets or datagrams are divided into small fragments and then transmits to network layer.

Overall Working of network fragmentation is covered in a following way.

When the router receives a data packet, overall recipient address is evaluated and MTU is determined. In network fragmentation, if the size of data packet is larger than maximum transmission unit and the DF bit is set to zero in the header. Then the data packet is fragmented into several parts and transmits over the network one by one.

Conversion of each fragment to a data packet, following changes will happen in the data header are as follows-

·       Total length is changed according to the size of fragment.

·       Additional fragment bit is set for all fragments except last one.

·       Header checksum is redesign and recalculated.

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If internet protocol packet is longer than MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit), then router breaks packet into smaller packets this process of called fragmentation. No doubt that IP fragmentation efficiently delivers longer packet from source to destination along with that it also increases waste in networking (bits of fragmented packets exceeds bits in original message). There are two types of fragmentation in networking such as transparent fragmentation and non- transparent fragmentation.

Transparent fragmentation- It is types of IP fragmentation in which hosts are unaware about whether fragmentation has taken place or not.

Non- transparent fragmentation- It is another type of fragmentation in which end hosts know that fragmentation has taken place.

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Fragmentation is a process of internet protocol that breaks the packets into small fragments, so that the pieces can transmit through a link with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU) than the original packet size. The procedure of transmission, fragmentation and reassembly of IP packets is describes by the RFC-791. Each networks have its Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU). The MTU value depends on the network type and protocols that is used. It is declared as the largest possible packet, which is allowed to be sent on the network and is always respected by all the devices and hosts, which transmit the data across network.

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