The psychology is defined as a scientific study devoted to the analysis of mental processes, including sensation, perception and behaviour, always in relation to their physical and social environment, and under suitable parameters according to conventional development. It is the study of the soul and the mind in cognitive, affective and behavioural levels.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PSYCHOLOGY
It is established 'in the situation'
Contrary to being a rigid science in its concepts, psychology analyses the behaviour, feeling and perception of the subjects considering social, individual and cultural factors.
It considers the training, social customs, standardized levels of development, environmental and social conditions and the whole environment of a subject to configure their psychological pattern and seek solutions adjusted to these conditions.
Related Article: The 35 Questions on Psychology That You Should Be Able to Answer
There are many current theories
Psychology has multiple valid and equally accepted theories. The most recognized are cognitive, psychoanalysis, systemic, Gestalt, phenomenological, positive, neuroscience and, currently notorious: the BioNeuroEmotion.
It has different branches or angles of attention
In general rules, the methodology of application of psychology can be divided into three main branches:
- The experimental - It is the science of its basic application that uses quantitative scientific methodologies.
- The clinical- It is based on qualitative methodologies to understand the behavioural and cognitive processes of the subject of analysis.
- The questionnaires- It is based on direct or indirect observation, analysing environments, behaviours and other factors.
Currents of study and application
The branches of studies are identified by their application methodologies and analysis approaches:
- Cognitive Behaviour in the situation and sensory interaction, attending to the processes of memory, language, perception and attention, among others.
- Physiological -. The functioning of the brain and the nervous system as the root of behaviour and thought.
- Experimental- Perception and memory, with techniques and analyses,
- Social- Influences of the social environment, in an analysis "from the outside inwards".
- Clinic- Disorders and diseases that affect behaviour, cognition and emotion.
Use the correlation
Psychology does not use microscopes or laboratory analysis to determine pathologies, disorders and phenomena. Instead, it uses observation, inquiry and then the correlation of the results to reach conclusions, and encompasses all the (complex) parameters that intervene in each mental and emotional process.
Separated the approaches of certain pathologies
Prior to the formulation of psychology and psychoanalysis, medical pathologies were considered what later became clear as mental and emotional disorders, including attention disorders, behaviour, repressions, phobias, obsessions and others.
It uses observation
The observation can be made in a natural or artificial environment. Psychology uses different methods of observation, including naturalistic (often the researcher as a witness in the natural environment of the subject), the artificial (in controlled, fictitious situations), and the documentary analysis of archives and literature.
The most outstanding pointers of psychology are:
- Experimental: 1879, Wundt.
- Psychoanalysis: 1896, Freud, Jung, Piaget, Adler.
- Behaviourism: 1913, Watson.
- Rational emotive behavioural therapy: 1954, Ellis.
- Cognitive therapy: 1960, Beck.
- Cognitive psychology: 1967, Neisser.
- Humanist: 1962, HPAA.
- Gestalt: 1940, Perls
- Sigmund Freud, the father of Psychoanalysis.
It differs from psychiatry
Although the terms are often used as synonyms, psychiatry correlates with medical science and studies the neurological and physiological functions that cause disorders and symptoms, while psychology deals with emotional, behavioural, environmental and other non-physiological factors.
Psychology for animals
The veterinary psychology analyses the processes and conditions of the animal environment for diseases or behaviours that explain, for example, aggression, and is a highly respected field of study in this community.