It is an interface between user and hardware of the computer. The operating system is known to be the software which performs basic functionalities such as memory management, file management, process management and controlling peripheral devices. Some of the common examples of computer operating system:
- Apple macOS: Apple Mac Operating system
- Microsoft Window 10: It is commonly used PC and IBM compatible operating system
- Google Android: It is used with Android compatible tablets and phones
- Ubuntu Linux: This is another popular variant of Linux involved in PC as well as IBM compatible computers
- iOS: This operating system is used with Apple iPads and iPhone
Linux distribution is known as an operating system composed of software collection that is based on Linux Kernel and is often known as package management system. Different Linux distributions are specified as beneath:
- Arch Linux: This is rolling release distribution that boasts one of the greatest software repositories.
- Debian: Debian is founding the father of Linux that provides a base for different distributions present today involving Linux Mint and Ubuntu.
- Fedora: It is an offshoot of Red Hat. It was an initial distribution to introduce both SystemD and Wayland.
- Knoppix: This is Linux distribution designed to be executed from USB or DVD drive.
- Gentoo: This is third popular Linux distribution and is involved by core community who live to compile code for themselves.
Functions of OS kernel
The kernel is recognised as the heart of an operating system that gives lower level abstraction layer for resources that are to be controlled by application software for performing its functions. There are different functions and tasks performed by Kernel:
- Resource allocation: The prime function of Kernel is to manage computer resources and enable them to execute and involve these resources.
- Process management: This process specifies which the application accesses memory segments.
- Memory management: The kernel has complete access to the memory of the system. It enables processes to access the memory when they require securely. Virtual addressing assist kernel to develop virtual memory partitions in disjointed fields where one is reserved for the kernel.
- Input/Output Device management: To execute important functions, processes require access to peripherals linked to a computer that is controlled by Kernel with the help of Kernel Drivers.
- Inter process communication: Kernel provides techniques for communication and synchronization among processes defined as inter process communication.
- Scheduling: Kernels involves scheduling algorithms to identify which is process will execute first. This algorithm defines priority between the processes.
Process and thread
Difference between process and thread
Threat and process are closely associated concepts in multi-threading. The major distinguishing point between two concepts is that threads are defined as part of the process; hence process may involve one or more threats. However, a thread cannot comprise a process.
A process is termed as an instance of the program which is being executed. Process contains program code along with current operations. By operating system, the process is build up of different threads of execution which execute instructions simultaneously. A thread can execute small series of programmed instructions which can be controlled independently by the operating system. Applications of processes and threats differ according to the operating system.
Wait time and turnaround time for processes
It is a parameter which defines the amount of time taken by a given ready process in waiting for queue prior receiving the CPU attention.
Turnaround is a time taken by a given process from submission till completion. It is also referred as the sum of execution time and waiting time.
CPU scheduling is known as a process which enables one process to involve CPU while execution process of other is put on hold because of non-availability of resources such as input/output etc., hence making complete usage of CPU.
Virtual memory is storage allocation pattern where secondary memory could be addressed as though it was a part of main memory. It maps memory addresses involved by program defined as virtual addresses into physical addresses in the computer memory.
Benefits of virtual memory
- Allocation of memory is simple and cheap
- It eliminates external fragmentation
- Enable more efficient swapping
- Pages can be mapped appropriately
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