Object-oriented programming is recognised as a form of computer programming where programmers specify not only data type of data structure but also forms of operations which can be used to the data structure. Therefore, data structure becomes an entity that involves both functions and data. Moreover, programmers can generate relationships among multiple objects. OOPS was fundamentally designed to decrease difficulty in a typical procedural language with the help of data binding as well as encapsulation techniques. It allows only inherited or authorised functions to access a specific object.
Basic concepts of OOPS
For understanding fundamental concepts of C++, programmers should possess sufficient knowledge of the basic terminology of OOPS. Below defined is a brief outline of OOPS concepts:
- Objects: It is the basic unit of OOPS. It represents a specific instance of a class. There can be multiple instances of a class. Every instance of a class holds its unique, relevant data. The object is an integration of data members as well as associated member functions also termed as methods.
- Classes: These are data types grounded on which objects are developed. Objects having common properties as well as methods are combined to formulate a class. Therefore, a class presents a group of individual objects. The tasks that are undertaken by objects become functionalities of class and are recognised as methods.
- Inheritance: It is a process of building a new class from a base class. The base class is defined as super class or parent class. The new class being formed is known as derived class. Inheritance helps to decrease the overall size of the code of the program that is an essential concept in OOPS.
- Data abstraction: Data abstraction improves the strength of programming language by generating user-defined data types. It also presents the desired information in the programming without providing the details.
- Data encapsulation: Data encapsulation groups the functions and data in a single unit defined as a class. While involving data encapsulation, it is not directly accessed because it is accessed using functions available inside a class. It allows the crucial aspect of possible data hiding.
- Polymorphism: Polymorphism enables routines to involve variables of distinct forms at multiple times. A function or operator is given distinct functions or meanings. Polymorphism is referred as a single function or multi-function operator executing in distinct ways.
- Overloading: Overloading is a form of polymorphism. It enables the object to have a distinct meaning, relying on the context. In case, existing function or operator, begin to operate on new data type, it is implied to be overloaded.
- Reusability: This concept states the potential for multiple programmers to involve commonly written and debugged existing class of data. Furthermore, the programmer can include new attributes to the existing class, hence developing an application and enabling the user to acquire high performance.
Benefits of object-oriented programming
- It is efficient for demonstrating abstract data types
- It provides evident modular structure for programs
- It is simple to maintain and alter existing code because new objects are developed with small difference to existing objects
- Implementation description is hidden from modules, and certain other modules involve defined the interface.
- It helps in implementing a real-life scenario
- In object-oriented programming, programmer not only specifies data types but deal with operations applies to the data structures.
- The important fundamental of a programming language is polymorphism, encapsulation and abstraction.
- Other essential characteristics given by this specific language are an instance, method, objects, inheritance and message passing.
Features of OOPS
- It involves characteristic of memory management
- It is enhanced type of C programming language
- It is a reliable software development language
- It is fairly a proficient language
- The most crucial attribute is that is due to its procedural as well as object-oriented
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