Network Topology is defined as a layout related to the network and how distinct nodes in the network are a connection with other as well as the way of communication. There topologies can be of two different types such as logical or physical. There are different types of topologies such as Ring topology, mesh topology, bus topology and others that have several advantages and disadvantages. In the star topology, all the network devices are connected to the hub which is also called as a central computer. In this part, you have to discuss the advantages and disadvantage of all the topologies with the help of some real examples.
While the transfer of data in the form of packets, each layer related to OSI model add its information on that particular data packet which is essential for the transmission of data across the entire network and to understand this particular data layer at all the ends. This process is called as encapsulation. This procedure is commonly called as encapsulation. This entire information is necessary during delivery of data to the destination. De-capsulation is defined as a process of opening up the encapsulated data that are usually sent in the form of data packets over the communication network. In this particular section, you have to explain the de-capsulation and encapsulation in five layer TCP/IP protocol suite. You also have discussed the de-multiplexing and multiplexing from the de-capsulation and encapsulation.
Band width is described as a range within the band of wavelengths or frequencies. It is also described as an amount of data which is transmitted in the appropriate and limited range of time. For the digital devices, it is expressed in bps (bits per second or bytes per second). For analog devices, the bandwidth is expressed in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. To answer this question, you have to calculate the approximate bit rate and the signal level for the bandwidth signal of 6.8 Mhz. With the signal to 132 noise ratio.
The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is defined as a logical and conceptual layout describes the communication network used by the systems open to the communication and interconnection with some other systems. This particular model is broken into seven different sub components also called layers. TCP/IP is called as Transmission control protocol and internet protocol. It is defined as a network model which is used in the existing internet architecture. These protocols define the movement of all the data between destination and source or the network. Different layers involve in TCP/OP model are application layer, transport layer, internet layer and network access layer. In this particular section, you have to define that why and how the OSI model is much better as compared to the TCP/IP model. Along with this, you also have to discuss the benefits and limitations of both the models appropriately in this section.
In this, the length of the link is given along with its speed of light i.e.
Length of the link: 1900 km
Speed of light: 2.2 x 108 m/s
Bandwidth of link: 8 Mbps
You have to describe the total delay for the frame of 5 million bits size which is being delivered with ten routers. Along with this, you have to provide the information regarding the component of total delay is dominant and also discuss its negligibility.
In computing, POP (Post Office Protocol) is an application-layer internet standard protocol which is utilised by local clients of e-mail to retrieve the e-mail over the TCP/IP connection of e-mail. POP (Post Office Protocol) has been established via various version, with POP 3 (version 3) being the last standard in common utilisation. According to RFC1939, a version 3, i.e. POP3 session is one of the given states such as authorisation, closed, update or transaction. Along with this, you also have to make the diagram and give the explanation regarding these all four states that how the POP 3 moves between all of them. The complete information must be given by considering the RFC1939.
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