ITC 542 | Comparison Between OSI Model and TCP/IP Model

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OSI Model

The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model which is defined as a logical and conceptual layout that describes the connection of network used utilized by the systems open to communication as well as interconnection with other different systems. This model is separated into seven different sub-components also known as layers in which each layer represents the conceptual collection regarding the services offered to the layers below and above it. The OSI model also describes the logical network as well as effectively defines the packet transfer of computer by utilizing several layer protocols. This particular model may also refer to as the seven-layer model or seven-layer OSI model. The OSI model was established by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) in 1978. While working on the framework of the network, ISO planned to develop the seven-layer model. The seven layers of OSI model are divided into two different portions such as media layers and hot layers. The media portion involves the data link, the network and physical layers and the hot portion involve the presentation, application transport and session layers.

TCP/IP Model

TCP is defined as a connection-oriented transport protocol that delivers data in the unstructured form. TCP can offer a sending node with the delivery information regarding the packets that are transmitted to the destination node. The TCP/IP Model helps in separating the functions of networking into different layers where each layer executes a specific function as well as is transparent to the layer below it and the layer above it. The network models are utilized to conceptualize that how the networks should work, so that network protocols and hardware can interoperate. This is one of the most commonly used network models, the other being the OSI model. The TCP/IP Model related to networking is a distinct way of focusing or looking at the networking. It is known as the closest model of the internet as it was established to define the TCP/IP. The TCP/IP Model is separated into four different layers such as application layer, transport layer, internet layer and the network access layer.

Similarities between OSI model and TCP/IP model

Some of the main similarities between the OSI model and TCP/IP model are as follows:

  • Both are known as layered architecture
  • Layers offer similar functionalities
  • Both are known as reference models
  • Both are protocol stack

Difference between TCP/IP model and OSI model

Some of the major differences between the TCP/IP model and OSI model are as follows:


TCP/IP model

OSI model


It is a Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol.

It is an open system interconnection.


It follows the horizontal approach.

It follows the vertical approach.


This model is based on the standard protocols around which the internet has been developed. It is called as a communication protocol, which permits the connection regarding the hosts over the network.

OSI is defined as generic, protocol-independent standard, performing as the communication gateway between the end user and the network.


In this model, the transport layer doesn’t guarantee packet delivery.

In this model, the transport layer guarantees packet delivery.


This given model doesn’t have separate session layer or presentation layer.

This given model has separate session layer or presentation layer.


The network layer in TCP/I P model is connectionless.

The network layer in OSI model is connectionless as well as connection oriented.


It doesn’t fit any protocol.

It has an issue about fitting the protocols into this given model.


It has four layers.

It has seven layers.


In this model interfaces, protocols and services are not properly separated, and it is also a protocol dependent.

This model describes interfaces, protocols and services very clearly as well as creates a proper distinction between them.

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