Wireless Sensor Network: Current Trends, Future Trends and the Challenges
Introduction to Wireless Sensor Network
Wireless sensor network is becoming one of the most interesting areas to research. In wireless sensor network, there are sensor nodes which form a sensor field and a sink. The large number of nodes present in the sensor node network have the abilities to sense the surroundings, perform a little processing and then transfer the sensed data to destination wirelessly. There are various areas of application in which the wireless sensor network can be used named as military, traffic surveillance, target tracking healthcare monitoring etc. In the wireless sensor network, there is a base station (also known as a gateway) through which a large number of nodes communicate with each other by using a radio link. In the communication process, the sensor collects the required data, compresses and then transmits it to the gateway either directly or indirectly by using other sensor nodes present in the network. In this article, the current trends and future trends of wireless sensor network will be discussed. Along with the trends, the challenges which can occur during development are also discussed (Katiyar, Chand & Chauhan, 2015).
- Local Services: -
There are local services like smart home/office, military, industrial and commercial etc. where the use of wireless sensor networks is growing at a faster rate. In the smart office/home, the wireless sensor nodes are used to control or monitor the devices from any remote location via a mobile phone application. In the military, it is useful to combat operations (Gupta, 2015).
- Security and Privacy control: -
In the real-world scenario, there are many wireless sensor network-based applications which are effective countermeasures to secure the private information.
- Biomedical/Medical: -
In the biomedical/medical services, the use of wireless sensor network is in a growing phase. The biomedical wireless sensor network supports the mobility when the sensors are monitoring the viral body functions during the treatment in the hospitals.
- Cognitive Sensing: -
Near future, the cognitive sensors can be used to acquire the localized and important information of the sensing environment by deploying a large number of sensors. The two most common sensing techniques are quorum sensing and swarm intelligence.
- Spectrum Management: -
In the wireless sensor network, there are many nodes and for these nodes, many low power wireless protocols are developing at a faster rate. In the future, it can be expected that there will be a low power-oriented wireless keyboard, power points presenters, cell phones, health monitoring sensors can be founded everywhere but, spreading of devices will increase the interference and congestion in between the network. There are different types of approaches like cognitive radios and wireless frequency MACs which can be used to utilizing the multiple frequencies for parallel communication.
- Underwater Acoustic Sensor Systems: -
In the future, there may be a chance of developing an underwater sensor network application in order to collect oceanographic data, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, assisted navigation etc. This application will help in exploring a greater number of undersea resources and in collecting scientific data.
- Experiment setup and new applications: -
In the wireless sensor network, there are many opportunities which can be deployed in real scenarios and to perform the experimental setups. In the future, the wireless sensor network can be deployed in various application scenarios including rural and forest environments. In the forest, a new wireless sensor network application is developing to help in tracking the animals and in crossing the transportation areas.
- Holes problem: -
A major issue in deploying the wireless sensor network to the large areas is a hole. The holes are generally gaps created between the different sensor nodes. There are various types of holes present in wireless sensor network, i.e. coverage hole, jamming hole, sink/black hole etc.
Power is a big challenge for the wireless sensor network. It becomes difficult for the researchers to design an energy efficient algorithm so that the devices consume less amount of power for performing the operations.
Hardware Cost: -
It will be a challenge for the researchers to produce a small or tiny wireless sensor network.
There are many attacks that are developed with the advancement of technology. These are capable in capturing data from the nodes; then the users require to design advance security algorithm for protecting the wireless sensor network from any data breaches.
System Architecture: -
There is no standard architecture followed for creating the network consisting of wireless sensors. The major challenge for the researchers is to identify a perfect architecture for the network in order to develop more applications.
Real World protocols: -
The protocols should be developed according to the real problems while focusing on the theoretical concepts that are used in the wireless sensor network.
àAnalytical and practical results: -
The researchers will be required to generate more analytical results and practical results in order to understand the working of the different wireless sensor network.
Katiyar, V., Chand, N., & Chauhan, N. (2015). Recent advances and future trends in Wireless Sensor Networks. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENGINEERING RESEARCH, 1(3).
Gupta, D. (2015). Wireless Sensor Networks ‘Future trends and Latest Research Challenges’. Journal Of Electronics And Communication Engineering, 10(2). doi: 10.9790/2834-10224146