PMBOK is an abbreviated form of Project Management Board of Knowledge. It is defined as the whole gathering of processes, best implementations, phraseology that is accepted as a standard within the project management industry. It is a general rule or principle that is accepted or undertaken in order to achieve quality and excellence within the project management industry. PMBOK (Project Management Board of Knowledge) controls and improves large extent of traditional approaches that can be implemented in Project Management. PMBOK guidelines are used as a standard guideline for the project management strategy to obtain PMP (project management professional) certification. Project management board of knowledge authorizes a large number of organizations to systematize the implementations over a large number of segments. PMBOK plays a vital role in case of occurrence of failure in the project. It helps in order to prevent the failure of project in terms of cost, quality factors. In the project management community, a large number of methods are registered and documented in PMBOK that helps in providing proper guidance to those who are not capable of undertaking the steps of risk management. PMBOK assists project manager in overcoming uncertain problems. PMBOK provides a standardized cluster of systems among various organizations and the main advantage of PMBOK is- it helps the project managers to work with a standardized set of systems to deliver quality project to the customers within assigned budget and time. It would not depend on the type of organization in which project manager works, all standard set of systems of PMBOK are applicable and same practices would be used by the project manager. In short, it means that a project manager would able to use the same practices without considering the type of organization. A project manager of organization is familiar about the guidelines of PMBOK and with the use of well-designed guideline, project manager adopts an optimal project management process which is considered to be fruitful for the organization.
The phase involved in the PMBOK approach are- Initiation, Planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closing-
Initiation- This is the initial phase of project management in this phase business needs of the organization are identified. In initiation phase, the goal and objective of the project are defined. Project manager and business analyst gather functional and non-functional requirement of the project so that scope of the project will get clear among the stakeholders. All the gathered requirements are specified in SRS (software requirement document). With the help of SRS development team map the functionality of designed module with expected outcomes that are specified by the project manager in SRS document. In initiation phase project manager identify key stakeholder such as designer, developer, tester etc. that are required for the development of project. the project manager uses various tools and techniques for the identification of stakeholders. Some of the tools and techniques used by the project manager for stakeholder identification are- salience model, brainstorming, expert judgment, interview, surveys etc. it is the prior responsibility of project manager to determine the scope of the project. For scope determination project manager use project scope management plan. After scope determination, stakeholder identification, requirement gather project manager creates project charter that contains entire detailed information regarding the project. After identification of stakeholders, project manager creates stakeholder register that contains entre detail information regarding stakeholders such name, role, email, contact etc.
Planning- In this phase, plans (scope management plan, time-activity scheduling plan, budget management plan, resource management plan, risk management plan etc.) are designed to carry out project in such a way that maximize productivity and minimize delay in the completion of project. Planning phase clarifies all the requirements, specifications, goals and expectations, constraints of the project. Project manager assigns roles and responsibilities to identifies stakeholder according to their interest. Budget and quality standards are planned by the project manager in planning phase where the budget incurred in the development of project is evaluated by using CBA (Cost Benefit Analysis) technique. Work breakdown structure is generated that describes the roles and responsibilities of the project team. WBS is a method used to divide and conquer complex and large project into smaller and manageable parts. WBS plays an important role in which large size project is divided into small chunks means work can be done simultaneously by different team members, leading to the faster delivery of the project and better team productivity. With the help of WBS, the project progress can be analyzed such as scheduling, costing, controlling and monitoring of the project.
Execution- in execution phase the complete project will be implemented on the user side to check compatibility, functionality, operating system support factors. This phase deals with the management of different developmental groups to effectively proceed on a project and successfully implementing all the practices and plans, designed to get the desired output within the fixed time period. In execution phase, project manager conducts project meeting to in order to resolve the project risks. In this meeting project manager also checks the complete status of the project. If changes required in the project, with the consent of team members project manager, implement changes to successfully complete the project within approved budget.
Monitoring and controlling- This phase control or deal with supervision of the project. In this phase, the parameters such as effort, cost, time needs to be controlled. If project goes out of budget but deliver before assigned time still project will not accept by the user or it leads to the failure of project, if project will be completed within approved budget but not delivered on the time, then also user will not accept the project that also leads to the failure of project and this automatically affects the market value of organization. Controlling phases basically deals with the key parameters such as cost, scope, time, effort, schedule. Project manager monitors and tracks the progress of the project on regular basis in order to deliver the project to the client within stipulated time.
Project closure- After the successful completion of each and every phase, it is very important to provide the formal closing detail of the project that has been completed. Successful closing of the project means, closing of the project within the specified period of time and within the budget assigned. The project manager needs to perform all the necessary paperwork which carries the detail of the closing of the project. All the experiences learned during the development of the project must be recorded and saved that might be used for the future. Project manager performs team member assessment and releases project resources and stakeholders after the successful completion of project.