When the companies have to make their employees productive and competent, then they take help of training and development. Employee training is the process by which a specific skill is developed in them. Mostly the training and development processes which focus on the overall growth of people. It gives benefit to both employee and the organization because with the enhanced efficiency the productivity of employees increases. Appropriately designed training programs help the employees to unleash their potential. The benefit for the organization is that it helps to retain and motivate their talented people. In this age of fierce competition, retaining the right employees is an also a challenge and training and development is a means to do that. With the help of training programs, the companies intend to change the behaviours, attitude, efficiency and skills to do a specific job.
The process of training entails a series of steps and the managers should approach them systematically to get the desired outcome. The various stages of training process are as following:
- TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENTS
The training need assessment is the first step of any training program. Here the Human Resource managers find out the need of training the employees. The managers have to collect data and analyze who needs to be trained. Essential questions which have to be answered at this stage are:
- What is the reason for the gap between the performance and the desired result?
- How many people need training?
- In which area should they be trained?
- How many people can be trained at a single time?
The training need assessment can be based on two perspectives which are individual perspective and the overall strategic goals of the organization. The data for knowing the performance discrepancies can be collected in some ways such as the information from the performance appraisal forms, an interview with the immediate senior of the employee, and speaking the employee one on one and knowing about the problems he/she is experiencing.
- DEFINING THE TRAINING OBJECTIVES
Once the managers are done with analyzing the need for training in a particular area, then the next task is to determine the objectives of the training. Here also they have to create a balance between the individual needs and the organizational needs of training. They have to objectify the training goals in such a way that the personal goals should be in congruence with the corporate objectives. Here the training department has to work in close tandem with the higher management of the company. This is because the higher officials can decide the goals which a training program should achieve.
- CREATING A TRAINING STRATEGY
The training department along with the concerned department or the higher management officials decide upon the most suitable approach for the carrying out a successful training program. Here they will decide the total cost of the program. Managers determine whether the program should be residential, non-residential program or both, how long the training program, must be so threat it does not affect the day to day work and produce best results etc. All the big or small specifications regarding the number of employees to be trained, the equipment and resources needed to provide the training, the trainers (should they be outside consultants or some in-house expert of particular skills) are taken while strategizing the plan. The outcome is also defined at this stage, and the managers also decide the methods of evaluations.
- DESIGNING THE PROGRAM
Once the training objectives are set then the next step is to design the training program. In this step, the managers have to decide the training methods and the minute details of every training sessions. A comprehensive action plan is designed by including every feature such as the training content and syllabus, the means of imparting different sessions of training, and all other requisites of training.
- IMPLEMENTING THE TRAINING PROGRAM
Once the designing of the program is completed the next step is to execute it. This is the phase when the actual training will happen in the form of different sessions. The trainers can make use of various training methods according to the need of the skill which has to be developed. There are numerous training methods such as lecture, role play, in-basket training, on-the-job training, coaching or mentoring, simulations, management games, case studies and many more. Different skills need different methods, and therefore training manager must imply the best suitable method for the development of particular expertise.
- EVALUATING THE PROGRAM
The evaluation methods should be decided while making the strategy because when the training department has a clear goal to achieve then only, it can channel its focus in that direction. The last but one of the most important steps of the training process is the useful and accurate evaluation of the whole process. The program can be evaluated with a number of different ways such as :
- By taking the feedback from the participants
- By assessing the performance of the employees
- By evaluating the knowledge acquisition of the participants by taking a test
- Change in behaviours and attitudes.