ARTICLE: The Job Analysis Techniques in Human Resource Management

The processes of every organisation need a dedicated and skilled workforce to manage and complete them. There are many essential functions which have to be done by the employees to achieve the objectives of the firm. There are different departments taking care of different procedures, and every department has some primary duties which the employees have to perform. The job of an individual consists of many functions which are related to each other. It is highly significant to evaluate the worth as well as the value of each job so that the outcomes can be measured accurately.

Many organisations who want to systematise their process and want to achieve the targets efficiently believe in evaluating the jobs done by different departments. The job evaluation is the technique where the value of the position is determined. The job evaluation procedures try to assess the purpose of having a function or activities in the organisation. The job analysis is not done by isolating one job, but in fact, it is the way to set the worth of a role about directly or indirectly associated activities and jobs. The main reason for staring the system of job analysis had been started was to establish a pay structure according to the level of the position. Job evaluation is a holistic approach for determining all the related criteria about a job, and the job analysis is one function of it.

The job analysis is the procedure with which the data for evaluating specific job is collected with the number of methods. No matter which job evaluation technique certain organisation adopts, it has to apply one or two ways of job analysis to gather relevant information about the responsibilities of a specific profile.

1. THREE MOST COMMONLY USED TECHNIQUES OF JOB ANALYSIS

The HR managers need to write down the KRAs for every job, and they can do this when they have a clear picture of what that job mainly entails. The written KRAs are essential because they give the idea about all the primary functions of a particular work and this helps the HR personnel in various HR processes such as recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal and rewards and recognition. The KRAs tells the employees as well as their managers that what duties exactly have to be performed for completing a task. That way they can also standardise the process according to the set benchmarks of the industry or the organisation itself.

There are three primary tools which are used to examine a particular job by collecting the relevant information about it:

• The Observation Technique

The observation method is one of the most widely used technique to obtain the data reading the duties of a particular job. In the first instance the observation method can seem the most comfortable way, but in fact, it is one of the most difficult among the three job analysis methods. Here the person who has to analyse the responsibilities of a function by observing the person who is performing the duties. Then the job analyst has to record the details of every activity which should be performed or is performed by the employees to do their task.

The record of all the duties where they are performed or non-performed by the employee is taken down by the job analyst. They also have to take note of different responsibilities which are fulfilled by the worker while completing a task or duties which are not completed by him/her. The way of doing work, achieving a target, emotional stability whole taking decisions, and the motivation and dedication for handling critical challenges given to him or her.

The major drawback of this technique is that every individual has a different way to rationalise and observe the things happening in front of their eyes. There is a high possibility of interpreting different findings by different managers, and this can lead to the different opinions. Then there is one more problem which is usually prevalent while using this job analysis technique and that is the personal biases of the managers towards specific complicated tasks and activities. This may prevent them to note down the certain responsibilities, and it can lead to the lesser productivity of the employees as well as the processes.

There are three main ways of observing people at work, and that is:

• The direct observation

Here the HR professionals have to observe the different employee regarding their behaviours and skills to do a job in numerous job-related situations.

• Analyzing the work methods of an individual

This methodic is used mostly in those processes where there is a systematic procedure for doing something, and the main process is divided into different stages which are essential to follow according to their number or happening. This is a useful way to record the activities of a task particularly in the study of motion and time for each step. An excellent example of utilizing this method of observation is the assembly -line of a manufacturing unit.

• The critical incident technique

In this observation method the job analyst analyses the work behaviours or competencies which lead to the desired performance.

2. THE INTERVIEW TECHNIQUE

In this technique, the information is taken from the employees by conducting a face to face interview with them. The worker can discuss the job responsibilities he/she has got to perform, the problems which they encountered frequently and the skills which are specifically required to complete a particular duty while performing the tasks. The employees can also spark about their fears and insecurities related to their work.

If the job analysis interviews are appropriately conducted, and the employees remain out of stress due to the open communication system of the organization then this technique can provide detailed and genuine information about a job. The employees can be encouraged to keep a diary where they can write down every activity they have performed while doing their work. This works as an excellent source of written insight which can be used by the HR managers to evaluate a particular job.

The interview method also helps the job analysts to know about the perception of the employees about the job. The employees can also become more aware of the importance of the duties which are assigned to them. This is the duty of HR department that they design the questions carefully and in advance which has to ask in the job analysis interview. To maximize the benefit of investing time and energy on conducting these interview, the questions should be well thought off and structured according to the nature of the job.

3. THE QUESTIONNAIRE TECHNIQUE

The third and widely used method of analyzing the job responsibilities is the questionnaire method. It is the responsibility of the HR manager to construct a clear and valid questionnaire so that the employees can understand what they are being asked and they get right responses. This method can also fall prey to the biases because the employees can mould their answers according to their interest. For the best outcome, it is highly essential that the employees should be conveyed the message about the purpose of this practice.