Every human being has his/her unique identity which is made up of the combination of different qualities and characteristics. The personality of the person speaksa lot about the values, behaviour and attitude of a person. The personality of an individual can be defined as the ways in which he/she reacts to a particular situation or interact with other people who come in contact with them at different levels and paths of life. There are many factors which directly or indirectly influence and develop the personality of the person. The personality of people defines how they feel, think, behave and understand certain situations and respond to them.
There are two main factors which have the most predominant influence on building the personality of a person, and they are :
- The hereditary factors
These are those factors which the individuals acquire from their parents. These are the features which the individuals get from their forefathers from the time of the birth. There are many characteristics which are included in the hereditary factors which make the personality of an individual such as the physical characteristics for example height, color of eyes, shape of the nose, texture of skin and hairetc.. The religion or race is also considered in the hereditary factors because people also acquire that according to the family in which they are born into.
According to the psychological studies along with the physical features such as stature, and facula alteration individuals also inherit the energy levels,andbiologicalrhythms of personality form their parents. These characteristics can be entirely influenced bythenature of their parents or have a partial influence on them. Even the traits such as confidence, shyness, distress, and fear are also inherited to children from their parents. Thosecharacteristics of personality which are fixed at the time of birth, then the environmental or other factors cannot change them. For example, the colour of the eye will remain the same throughout the life which the person gets from his/her parents. If a person is confident in nth= childhood, it is likely that this trait will remain with him or her throughout life.
- The learned characteristics
The society and the environment in which an individual grows has a significant impact on shaping the personality of an individual. When we start learning at an early stage of our childhood, we learn by watching our elders. Learning does not cease throughout the life of an individualwhether it is an active learning or passive learning. Our formaleducation starts with the schools and then it continues to the college and even higher levels. Acquiring knowledge about a particular field makes us expert in that field,and then we start practising those skills to solve the real world problems.
Hence the environment, the school in which a person studies or the college where one goes has a significant impact onbuilding the personality of an individual. All the behavioural and personality traits which people acquire by learning from the surroundings by getting exposed to them on a regular basisare called as the learned characteristics of the personality. There are many features which can be included in the learned characteristics of human beings which are attitude, values, beliefsand perception. The environment where we grow up gives our personality a character, and that differentiates us from every other human being.
The concepts of organizationalbehaviour give a significant emphasis on the personality of the individual and his or her learnedbehaviours. The cultural and societal difference makes our [personalitydifferent and the organizations where the workforce is highly diverse have to study the personalities of their employees very carefully. The managers should understand the difference in beliefs, values and personalities of the individual workers so that they can tap this diversity and use it for maximizing the productivity of the firm. The HR managers have a very challenging job to keep the OB concepts efficiently working for them so that they can retain their best talent regardless having a difference in opinions, backgrounds, educational qualifications, religion, location, age or gender. If you want to understand what are all problems the HR managers have to go through while maintaininga progressive and cohesive environment in the organization you can read the article named “Various Challenges in Organizational Behavior for Managers” and get a comprehensive idea about it.
- The environmental factors
The environment which we get whole growing up has the most significant and evident influence on our personality. The area where an individual is raised, the conditioning he or she has got from the elders or society, the rules which are followed in one's family, the social groups or; levels with which a person identifies him or herself have a huge impact in building their personality. The value and belief system is also adapted from the social norms which an individual learns while growing up by seeing others and then adopting it slowly and gradually in his/her behaviour. The environmental factors and the hereditary factors have the maximum effect on our personality. The organizations when hire employees take great care to understand the background the person so that they can know in which role and position that person fits suitably. The decision making and problem-solving also get influence according to the personality of the personand therefore it is vital for organizations to understandthe dynamic.
The managers who keenly examine the behavioural traits and the personality of the candidates applying for a post can select the most suitable candidate according to the unique demands and specifications of the job along with having the required qualification and skill sets. Many companies these days conduct the personality tests and make it an essential part of the selection process. These personality tests give them the fair idea about the actual personality of a person despite having home said anything in the interview process. This works asexcellent recruitment and selection tool for the companies these days.
- The situational factors
There is one more factor which also has a substantial effect on the personality formation of people. These are the situations with which they have to deal with and get to a solution to them. Differentconditions can have different effects on the personality of people, and their personality can change in varyingcircumstances also. There are some situations which are highly demanding and needs to be tackled immediately with complete concentration and focus. If the conditions are very critical, then a careless person will also pay attention to details. Hence the personality traits cannot be studiedin isolation instead they should be examined in concerning different contexts.