The smart home is also known as “Home Automation” or “Assistive Domotic”. (Mao et al., 2017) Computer technology and Information technology is used for the development of smart home. With the use of computer and information technology, the devices present in the homes can be controlled such as entertainment systems, temperature, lighting and so on. In smart homes, an electronic mesh type network is created in order to integrate various devices and appliances in the home so that home can be controlled by using a single machine. The single machine that controls the entire functionality and features of the devices and the appliances are also termed as a centralized system. In other words, the smart home is a cell which is deployed with the machine to machine interface devices that possess the capability of controlling and monitoring the functionalities of the devices/appliances. For example, deploying different sensors in the home for the detection of a various parameter such as thermos-sensor is used to measure the temperature of the home, hydro-sensor used to measure the extent of moisture present in the room etc. With the advancement, wireless communication network facilitates a number of sensors to communicate with each other and work collaboratively to continuously monitor the climatic conditions as well as environmental conditions. The main objective of home automation is to achieve- comfort, stability, amenity, health, Convenience, reduction of household labour, saving costs, energy efficiency. The development of wireless internet technologies extended the concept of home automation in which all home devices can be operated and managed with the help of a centralized unit (hand-held devices).
What are the essential elements of a smart home?
There are three essential elements of smart home named as-single functioning devices, the centralized control unit(CCU), shared protocol (defined set of signal transmission rules).
Single functioning devices- Sensors, meters, switches, detectors are single functioning devices that are able to operate under remote control. Single functioning devices are working as a single entity and can control each of their own functions such as ON/OFF activity of light can be controlled by switches, the temperature of the cell can be detected or sensed by the thermos-sensor, moisture can be detected by the hydro-sensor, security can be detected by the detectors. Single functioning devices can perform a single function and able temperature under the influence of remote control.
The centralized control unit (CCU)- (Vaidya and Vishwakarma, 2018) CCU’s are those devices that can operate single functioning devices. CCU can only control those single functioning devices that can be deployed in one cell. Phones, tablets, other control applications act as a centralized control unit that controls the entire functioning of the single functioning devices. In order to control the single functioning devices, CCU’s uses wireless technology such as Bluetooth, Radiofrequency, Wi-Fi etc. these technologies work under restricted range. Hence, that’s why CCU can control only that single functioning units that can be deployed in one cell.
Shared protocol- Shared protocol ensures the interaction between one cell and the outsiders. By using shared protocol smart home cells are interlinked with each other. By using shared protocol, the smart cells can be controlled from any place and at any time.
List the key features of the smart home-
Accessibility- Due to remotely controlled devices smart home facilities are easy to access. The information detected, sensed and measured by the single functioning device can be assessed by the centralized control unit in order to get the details of parameters such as temperature, moisture, radiation etc.
Inclusion- If the user can operate the control unit of the cell then it does not matter how aged a person is; what type of gender possess by the person; what kind of motor ability end user have.
If the user knows how to operate the centralizes control unit then he/she can able to operate and manage the function of the single functioning devices that are deployed in the cell. For elderly and disabled person smart homes play a significant role. in the smart homes of an elderly and disabled person, wheelchairs are accessed through centralized remote, compressive and expansion technology deployed in the matrixes that can able to adjust the height of the furniture and many more devices are used to facilitates the elderly and disabled persons. the smart home concept helps the doctors to remotely monitor symptoms, provide proper guidance for rehabilitation etc.
Sustainability- (Liu et al., 2015) smart home technologies provide sustainable benefits in case of energy consumption control. Whereas sustainable perspective is defined as the practice of reserving resources for the future generation without harming the components of nature. Smart home actually contributes to the smart city through its characteristics such as accessibility, e-inclusion, connectivity, promotion in the education sector, security, sustainable management etc.
Advantages of home automation are-
- Smart home helps to manage home devices from one place- the centralized system is used for the management of all the operational activities of connected devices.
- Home automation maximizes home security by incorporating security and surveillance features in the smart home, security can be enhanced.
- By using home automation all the devices can be remotely controlled by the centralized system.
- Home automation helps the devices to run their operations in a better Smart oven cook’s food by setting time automatically-without worrying about overcooking.
- By deploying home automation in the home, an individual can monitor all of his/her previous activities for example-what kind of meal or food previous cooked in the oven etc.
Liu, L., Liu, Y., Wang, L., Zomaya, A. and Hu, S. (2015). Economical and Balanced Energy Usage in the Smart Home Infrastructure: A Tutorial and New Results. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, 3(4), pp.556-570.
Mao, X., Li, K., Zhang, Z. and Liang, J. (2017). Design and implementation of a new smart home control system based on internet of things. 2017 International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2).
Vaidya, V. and Vishwakarma, P. (2018). A Comparative Analysis on Smart Home System to Control, Monitor and Secure Home, based on technologies like GSM, IOT, Bluetooth and PIC Microcontroller with ZigBee Modulation. 2018 International Conference on Smart City and Emerging Technology (ICSCET).