(Vijayapriya and Pralhadas Kothari, 2011) Smart grid is a digital-based technology. Smart word refers to “Apparently Intelligent Action” whereas grid refers to “Network”. Smart grid is an electricity network in which consumers are connected with the smart grid to fulfil the demand for electricity. Smart grid system uses two-way digital communication network. Smart grid is used for analysis, monitoring, and controlling the electricity supply chain to improve the efficiency of electric signal, reduce energy consumption, and cost. Smart grids are used for a sustainable future in which the consumers can use resources in an efficient way without wastage of the energy. Smart grid is a collection of technologies that establish electricity network with the consumers in a flexible way. They are digitally enhanced power systems in which modern control technologies are deployed that enhance the efficiency and flexibility of the system. Smart grid technology greatly reduces greenhouse gas emissions to large extent by using the renewable resource of energy. It is a combination of centralized power stations and decentralized power generators that allow the multidimensional flow of power.
Advantages of smart grid-
v Intelligent and efficient nature of smart grid
(Shawkat Ali and Wolfs, 2013) Smart grid intelligently senses the overloads and reroute power to another consumer in order to prevent over-consumption of electricity. It is efficient in nature because they are potentially able to meet the increasing demands of consumers without adding any kind of infrastructure. Automatic operational activities and automatic maintenance enhance efficiency of the smart grid to large extent.
v Eco-friendly (reduce global warning)
Smart grid is capable of integrating large amount of renewable energies that in return reduces pollution, global warming, and emission of greenhouse gases. In short, smart grid acts as a powerhouse of electricity.
v Acts as a power generating station (large power accommodation ability)
The smart grid is able to accommodate a large amount of energy from renewable sources and fuel sources. Due to large power accommodation ability smart grid act as a power station.
Smart grid possesses the capability to enhance the capacity of the existing network by offering automated operational activities.
Many security features are deployed in the smart grid that is the reason smart grid network is safer from the cyber-security attacks, natural disasters, and unwanted tempering. Due to the adoption of strong security features smart grid is not susceptible to cyber threats.
v QUALITY focused technology
Smart grit is quality focused technology the basic objective of the smart grid to sully power to the consumer via a two-way communication channel. Smart grid establishes the quality of the network to ensure that the quality of power is delivered to the consumer. To maintain power quality smart grid, reduce voltage fluctuation such as spikes, noise etc. and electromagnetic disturbance in the network.
Customization of power
With the use of smart grid electricity network, consumers can customize the use of energy. Smart grid supply energy on the basis of individual needs, environmental concerns and electricity prices.
v Social economic development
Smart grid creates job opportunities and plays an active role in social-economic development.
How smart grid is better than existing grid?
Comparison between smart grid and existing grid-
ü Smart grid is totally digital in nature.
ü It is based on handshake mechanism or it offers two- way communication network.
ü In smart grid, sensors have deployed that senses the overloads in the network and automatically smart grid reroute the power to another consumer that require emery. In this way, smart grid automatically reduces the overloads
ü Smart grid network is adaptive and intelligent in nature as is sensing capability prevent smart grid from overloads.
ü In smart grid, large scale renewable energy is integrated that leads to sustainable development and proper utilization of renewable resources.
ü Smart grid is energy efficient as it allows automatic operation activities.
ü In smart grid, customers can check uses and modify accordingly
ü Existing grid is mostly electromechanical in nature that is susceptible to electromagnetic disturbance.
ü It is based on the one-way communication network. Only transmitting facility is available in the existing grid that leads to wastage of power to large extent.
ü Sensors are not used in existing grid.
ü Existing grid is not adaptive and intelligent.
ü In existing grid, it is not possible to integrate the renewable energy. that does not lead to sustainable development.
ü Existing grid is not efficient because it is not based on automated system
ü In case of existing grid customers have less scope to modify uses.
Challenges associated with smart grid are-
Development of decentralized architectures- (Smart Grid Research: Communications, 2013) It is hard to operate Small electricity supply systems in consent with total system (smart grid).
Active participation of customers- Enables consumers to reduce energy consumption and play an active role in the operations of the system.
Strengthening the grid- To enhance the strength of the signal, interconnection of energy resources is the major challenge faced by the smart grid.
Moving offshore- To develop most convenient connection for marine technologies and for offshore wind farms.
Capabilities of smart grid are-
- Smart grid has capability to repair itself.
- It generates a platform for electricity markets to enhance their performance and make business.
- Smart grid provides choice of supply to consumers.
- Reduces the adverse impact of the environment
- Smart grid Provides user-centric approach and facilitates new services to enter into the market.
- Smart grid aims to provide accessibility to all the consumers to liberalized market
- For electricity renewal smart grid establish innovation as an economic
Shawkat Ali, A. and Wolfs, P. (2013). Smart Grid for a Sustainable Future. Central Queensland University, [online] 4. Available at: https://file.scirp.org/pdf/SGRE_2013022615342020.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2019].
Vijayapriya, T. and Pralhadas Kothari, D. (2011). Smart Grid: An Overview. Vindhya Institute of Technology & Science, [online] 2. Available at: http://research.iaun.ac.ir/pd/bahador.fani/pdfs/UploadFile_1231.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2019].
Smart Grid Research: Communications. (2013).