Job analysis which is also known as work analysis in many organizations is the process of identifying and collecting the information regarding the requirements and activities involved to complete a particular task. With the help of job analysis, the organizations get to know which employee should be employed for a specific duty. The HR professionals who determine the responsibilities of a job and its requirements to do it efficiently, should first understand the importance of the tasks and also skills which are necessary to carry out that process. When the organizations specify the skill sets and competencies which are needed to finish a job productively, it is called the process of the job specification.
Different methods which are used for analyzing the duties of a job by the various organization are the job element method, the task inventory approach, and the critical incident methods etc. The data is usually collected by constructing questionnaires which are filled by the employees or the people associated with that role directly or indirectly. If the job analysis is done for the managerial level positions usually the methods of Position Analysis Questionnaire or more specific one the large companies use the executive position description questionnaire. With the help of this technique, the detailed information about the tasks and the personal attributes and behaviour required to complete those tasks are analyzed.
There are different methods which are used by organizations to analyze the duties and skills of the particular job at hand. Different techniques which are popular to collect data for analyzing a job are observation method, critical incident method, work sampling technique, interviewing the employees face to face and collecting data with the help of questionnaires. All these methods have certain advantages and certain disadvantages. You can read the article “Merits and Demerits of Questionnaire Method for Job Analysis” to know the pros and cons of this particular technique.
The fundamental information which is collected in the job analysis is the following:
The duties of the employee for a particular job:
The first information which is required by the job analysis for a job analysis is the list of functions in which one specific role entails. Here they should enlist all kinds of duties which are fulfilled by the incumbents or which are ignored by them. This data can be collected with the help of interviewing the employees and their immediate seniors. The daily diaries or daily reports are also an excellent source to check because they usually entail all the duties which have been performing by the employers on a particular day of work. This process where all the responsibilities are enlisted is called a job description.
The information regarding the work conditions
Job analysis also has the data regarding the physical conditions where the worker has to perform the duties. This also includes the details of the people they have to work with such as immediate senior, the teams of subordinates, the suppliers, distributors and other stakeholders etc.
Fundamental Qualifications to do a job
The employees must possess some necessary qualifications which are utterly crucial for performing a certain task. This becomes particularly essential in the technical positions.
The behavioural and functional skills which are required for performing a particular task is also essential to list in the job analysis because it is highly essential to know the competencies to do a job. This information which tells the managers about the requirement of the skills is called as the job specification. Knowing job specification is as important as knowing the job description.
THE IMPORTANCE OF JOB ANALYSIS
Analyzing the duties and skills related to every job performed in the organization is crucial because it helps the companies to develop a plan to maximize the employee's potentials and with its help, they can also optimize the talent. The data which is obtained after analyzing the job can be used in the different ways in the organizations which are Witten as below:
- The job analysis information set the basis for the performance appraisal forms. With the clear job description, the managers can know about the performance gaps by tallying the outcomes.
- The training department also needs a written job analysis information, and it helps the managers to design an apt training program so that the performance gaps can be filled and the productivity can be enhanced.
- Job analysis also proves to be an excellent tool for improving the process because when the employees know what exactly should be done for maximizing the output, then it helps to ignore the unnecessary and unfruitful tasks.
- The recruiters of a firm also need a clear and detailed description of the duties of the job so that they can create a right pool of candidates for a role. The selection process becomes more specific if the recruiting managers know what they want in an employee for a particular duty.
DIFFERENT PERFORMANCE DIMENSIONS
For understanding the dimensions of the jobs, it is highly essential to know the job analysis of a specific function. There are various dimensions of job performance which are examined while appraising the duties and performance of a particular employee. These performance dimensions set the platform for the performance appraisal process. There are various methods of appraising the performance which is used by the organizations according to their applicability. These dimensions to analyze the job performance are listed as below:
- The performance is evaluated on the outcome of the process. Whether the issue which has been produced by the employee is on par with the expected result decides the efficiency of the workers.
- Whether the employees take enough initiative for doing his/her task well or not is also a performance dimension which is assessed whole analyzing the performance.
- Is the worker handling the tasks with enough responsibility and maturity?
- The ability to take a fast decision and to manage all the tasks to arrive at the desired outcome is also a dimension of performance.
- Organization of the tasks and people effectively is an also a performance dimension used by the HR managers.
- The technical proficiency and the knowledge about the product and process of the organization.
- The behavioural competencies is also a performance dimension used in the evaluation process.