Fundamentals of Computer Network

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Fundamentals of Computer Network

In the world of computers, networking is one of the techniques for connecting two or more nodes together in order to transfer data between them. Computer Network is built with the different type of hardware and software devices. In order to send data from one node to another node, there are various components which are required such as Sender, Receiver, Message, Medium and Protocol. Moreover, there are some essential components of the Computer network which are discussed below:

  1. Types of Computer Network

The categorization of the network can be done in various ways. One of the techniques is defining the type of network according to the geographic area it spans and moreover computer network is also classified based on types of Network Protocols and Network Topology.

  1. Hardware Devices

The building blocks of a computer network include routers, adapters and Access points. In the Wireless and Wired Networking, various types of network cables are used such as CAT5, CAT6, Serial Cables etc. Some of the network Hardware devices includes Routers, Switches etc.

  1. Ethernet

Ethernet is a physical and data link layer technology for LAN (Local Area Networks). There are different types of network tables which are mentioned below.


Cable Type

Maximum Data Transmission Speed

Maximum Bandwidth

Category 3


10 Mbps

16 MHz

Category 5


10/100 Mbps

100 MHz

Category 5 e


1000 Mbps

100 MHz

Category 6


1000 Mbps

250 MHz

Category 6 a


10,000 Mbps

500 MHz

Category 7


10,000 Mbps

600 MHz


  1. WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networking)

A wireless Computer Network is the network in which two or more devices which are connected with the use of the wireless network in order to form local area network within a specific area such as in office building, school, home etc. The transmission of data takes place in the wireless network using Radio waves.

  1. Internet Services

There are various techniques which are used for connecting to the Internet which is different than which are used for connecting devices on the LAN network. Cable Modems, DSL (Digital Subscriber Lines) and Fiber Optic Cable provide fixed broadband Internet Services and whereas LTE and WiMax support supports mobile connectivity. However, In the geographical areas where High-speed network speed is not available, users are forced for using older network services such as Cellular, Satellite, Dial-up Internet etc.

  1. Internet Protocols

TCP/IP refers to Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol used over the Internet. The related family of protocols which are built on basis of TCP/IP enables email, web browser and many other applications to communicate across networks. In the network different computers and applications are identified with the use of IP Address.

  1. Network Routing, Switching and Bridging

 The transmission of data from one node to another node in a network is done with the use of different Routing Protocols, Switches and network bridges. The router uses information stored inside the messages in order to send to its destination. Network Switches also uses the same technology as routers, but it supports LAN network only and Bridging enables message to travel between two different types of physical networks.

  1. Types of Transmission


Transmission of a network refers to the sending the data from one device to another device. There are three modes of transmission that are Simplex, half duplex and full duplex and moreover Unicast, multicast and broadcast are also considered as transmission.

  1. Simplex Transmission

In this mode, data is sent only in one direction and moreover one can say that it is a communication channel which sends data in one direction at a single time.

  1. Half Duplex


In this mode transmission of data takes place from both the sides but only one at a time. For example, when one user is sending data to another node, the second user cannot send data to the first user such as data transmission takes place in a walkie-talkie.


  1. Full Duplex

In this mode, data is transmitted in both the directions simultaneously from both the directions. For example, when one user is sending data to another user in same time another user can also send data to the first user.


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