ARTICLE: Fundamental Theories of Organizational Behavior

Organizational behavior is a significant branch of human resource management, and this is taught as a subject to all MBA students in their first year. Organizational behavior is the study of the individual and group behaviours in a corporatesetup. Therefore all the students of MBA regardless of the specialization they will take in the next year have to study this subject. This is kept as a common subject for all students because everyone needs to learn the basics and dynamics of behaviours in an organization.

There are several theories which are studies under OB and these theories explain how the management behaviors and the culture and climate of a particularorganizationinfluence the positive or negative behaviours of the employees. Here is the list of the fundamental OB theories along with an overview of their underlying philosophies:

Theories related to Intelligences

Intelligence is the person’s ability to understand and gain the knowledge and implementing it for doing specific tasks. There is a difference in theknowledge and the intellect. Knowledge is something that we know, and intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, skills and other useful information. There are primarily three theories of intelligence which are:

  • The theory of emotional intelligence
  • Theories of multiple intelligence
  • The theory of one general intelligence

Theories reacted to personality

Personality is the blend of different qualities and characteristics of a person which gives a distinctive character to an individual. The nature of an individual is defined by the habitual behaviors, emotional patterns and other cognitive behaviours. The biological and environmental factors have a significant impact onshaping and building distinguishingpersonalities of people. The personality theories are as following which are studies under OB concepts.

  • A and B personality theory
  • The five-factor model or Big Five model

Motivational theories

Motivation can be defined as the reason for acting in a specific way and then repeating that behaviour. Motivation is what makes individuals do certain things in a particular manner. Mostly motivation is taken as an excuse if the things are not going according to the planned way. The lack of motivation is the primary problem many people face when things do not go well with them. There are six main motivational theories which are coveredby the organizationalbehaviour concepts.

  • Expectancy theory
  • X and Y theories of Motivation
  • Goal setting theory of motivation
  • Two-factor theory by Herzberg
  • Hierarchy of needs theory by Maslow
  • Extrinsic and extrinsic motivational approach

Perception theories

Individuals develop a belief system by the world around them. The perception is the way how people see the happenings and events which happen around them. Building a percept entails various steps such as the organization of the information at first. The second phase is the identifying with that information or concept and at the end drawing interpretations of that info. Our nervous system plays an active part in shaping our perceptions and making them strong. For example to perceive something we need to feel it with any one of our sensory systems such as hearing, vision, touch, speech and smell etc. There is one dominant perception theory in OB which is:

  • Gestalt Principles of Perception

Attitude and behavior theories

Attitude can be defined as the way of feeling something or thinking about that thing. This is like a state of mind at a given point in time. Whereas the behaviour is the way, someone acts in a specific situation. There are four major theories related to attitude and behavior in the organizationalbehavior which are:

  • Social cognitive theory
  • Single and double loop learning theory
  • Modification of organization behavior
  • Reinforcement theory