The collection of the facts and the figures is called data, and the database is further the collection of the related data in the system. The data which is gathered in the system is then processed for the production of the information.
The recordable facts compose the highest number of percentage of the constituents of data. The pre-requisite for the production of information is the facts and the data aid in reaching them. For instance, if in a class, we have to get the information that which is at the top position, we need to gather the marks of all the students. Also, we can conclude about the average scores.
Reaching the data and the correct information out of the heap of the data available would get cumbersome and heavy. We need a system to make it easy to use, retrieve and manipulate. For this, we have the database management system. It assists in the production of the information along with making the process accessible.
Let us have a look at the features and the characteristics of the database
The traditional way of storing the data was in the file format. In this field, a new concept namely the database management system has been introduced. It is done for removing the shortcomings of the file system to traditionally store the information. It was also followed by proper research to style the management of data. The modern field of the management of the database has the below-written features.
- Ease the accessibility of the relation-based tables- In the new system to manage the data, we need the entities and the relations for the formation of tables. It makes the comprehension of the data by writing the information in the form of data. The user just needs to look at the table name to get the architecture of the database.
- It is a real-world entity- The modern form of the data storage uses the entities of the real-world and is more realistic as compared to the file management system. The database approach uses the attributes and the behavior of the work too. For instance, the entity in a school database will be the students, and the attribute would be their age.
- Offers the isolation of the data and the application- The system of the management of the data and the data itself are completely two different terms. The data on which the database organizes and works is the passive form, whereas the database is the active entity. For the easing of the process, the database uses the data about the data which is called the metadata.
- Leads to less redundancy- Database management is the system which results in the splitting of the relation of the attribute by following the rules of the normalization whenever it has the redundant values. The scientific process and the mathematical approach by the normalization technique reduce the redundancy of data.
- Assists in query language- The features which make it more useful and leads to the manipulation and the retrieval of the data is through the equipment of the query language in the DBMS. For the recovery of data, the user can apply the different options to filter the requirements unlike the traditional way of the file-processing system.
- Helps in achieving the data consistency- In the modern approach of the data storage, DBMS provides the consistency to the system. It works indifferently from the earlier forms of data storing applications. When every relation in the database remains consistent, then this state is called as consistency.
- ACID Properties- The full form of the acronym is the Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability. The DBMS follows the concepts and then it applies to the manipulation of data, on the transactions and in the database. In the case of any failure in the system, these properties help the data to stay in the healthy and in multi-transactional environments.
- Helps in getting multiple views- If you have the system in which you need your user to have the various views, then opt DBMS. For example, the user of the medical store will have a different look at the database as compared to the user working in the department. It is multi-purpose system and has multiple services. Along with these, it offers the concrete view of the database and that too as per the requirements.
- Leads to the concurrent access by the multiuser- In this feature, the user is allowed to have the multi-user access to the environment, in addition to the manipulation of the data in parallel. There are always some restrictions on the transactions of the data every time you request to handle the data of the same item. But don’t worry, you would be kept unaware of all these things.
- Offers security-When you are unable to access the data in the other departments, then the multi-user feature of the database management system provides security to some extent. No, not all of the users would be able to access the data. There are several constraints related to the retrieval of the data in the same stage. The level of the security features the DBMS offers multi-level. In that course, multiple users are enabled to have the different views of the various features. For instance, the users of the Sales department in any store will not be able to see the data of the purchasing department.
There is a particular architecture of database and data models.
Users of the database
Every user has different permissions and rights and that too for the different purposes. It is a thing related to a typical DBMS. Some of the users of the system are enabled to retrieve the data and some of them back it up. There are three categories in which the users are divided. These are as follows.
- End Users
- End Users- The users which reap the advantages of the database management system fall into this category. There are end users who emphasize on the logs as well as the on the market rates. These are called the simple viewers. The other range of the end user is the sophisticated user. The business analysts come under this.
- Administrators- The people who maintain the DBMS are the administrators of the system. Looking after the usage and the responsibility of the letting the users see the data is with the administrators only. For this, they have to take another step of the creation of the access profiles and the application of the constraints of the maintenance of the force security and isolation. They also have to look after the resources of the DBMS, for example, required tools, system license, and the other hardware and software related information.
- Designers- These are the actual workers of the designs of the database. They are the group of people who keep a watch on the type of the format. In addition to this, the identification and the design of the set of relations, constraints and their views are to be done by the designers.