The 21st century has got another name, which is the digital age. The usage of the electronic device is increasing and is covering the areas such as management, research, communication, and drawing. So, to perform well in all these areas, the computer accepts the data, or we can say the input from the user, and then it begins the procedure of processing it. After taking the information, it produces the desired results which we call as the information.
• Data is the collection of the raw facts and figures which does not prove meaningful to the user. It has to be processed to get the meaning of the data.
• The set of instructions which are needed for the processing and the instruction of the computer to tell the operation to be done are called the programs.
• The result of the data after the processes are called information.
PARTS OF COMPUTER
There are several portions in which the computer is divided. The types of computer are as follows-
1. Input Devices-
These are the hardware devices which the computer needs to inform the system to process the data are called the input devices. These are the mouse, keyboard, scanner, cameras, video capture hardware, gamepad, and many more. These are the peripheral devices or the computer hardware equipment to control the signals. When you use the keyboard of your smartphone to send a message to someone, then you are utilizing the output device to get the information.
2. Storage Devices- Computer performs in a four-way step. Storing the data is the second step of the functioning of the computer. That information is to be stored in the system, and the devices store it. These are called the storage devices. There are two storage devices in the computer system. The random access to the memory is possible with the primary storage device, called RAM. If you want the computer system to remember everything, that is everything it reads, output and input, then go for storing the data in the RAM. The volatile nature of the memory erases the data when the supply of the data is stopped from the storage device. Are you thinking of the steps to access the memory? It is easy. All you have to do is know the row and the column of the cell in which you want to intersect the information. The time the system is switched off, it forgets everything. The ROM. It works regardless of the availability of the power supply. And the best thing is that it does not allow the data to be modified which is stored on it. These are the devices which keep the data even after turning it off. To keep the user data safe in the system for the future use, we have the secondary storage devices. These are the devices such as hard drive, CD, floppy, and many more. These are the other places in which the data can be stored permanently.
3. Processing Device- The devices which are doing the work are the processing devices. They also control the flow of the information from one part of the computer system to the other. The controller of all the jobs is called the central processing unit.
4. Output Devices- The parts of the computer which are needed to give the information which the computer system generates are called the output devices. For example, monitor, speakers, plotters, and the printers.
Now, let us talk about the software of the computer system which makes the working and the operation of the system accessible.
The computer data and the instructions are collected, and the organized format is called the software. There are two major categories in which the software is broken into; these are the system software and the application software.
1. System Software- The work of the management, integration and the control of the individual components of the hardware is the responsibility of the system software. It is done so that the system user and the software take the task as a functional unit. The primary motive is that the system must not be concerned with the details of low-level. Rendering the text into the display and the transfer of the data from the memory to disk is the low-level details. The operating system and the utilities of the function are the two main components of the system software. For example, file manager, disk formatters, text editors, user authentication, device and network control software, and their management tools.
For example, Linux, Unix, DOS, Mac OSX, Microsoft Windows etc. The system software does not need the application software to run.
2. Application Software- This type of the software needs to do another task as well in addition to the running of the computer system. The components of the application software are not confirmed. These can be anything varying from the single program, a small collection of the programs or anything. For example, it can be an image viewer, a software package, spreadsheet, text processing system, software suite and many more. Packages with the standard user interface and the extensive collection of the independent as well as the related programs can also be a part of the application software. The shared format of data such as Microsoft Office, database, spreadsheet, word processor, a software system, many more. The management of the database system collects the fundamental programs for providing services given to the multiple and various independent applications.
For example, Microsoft Word (Word Processing), Opera is a web browser, Microsoft Excel, Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft PowerPoint, MySQL etc. The dependency in the case of the application software is required. The system software is needed to run the application software.
Utility of Software
The other name of the utility software is the service program. The primary function of the utility program is the enhancement of the performance of the user level and the system.
a) System Utilities- It is used for the optimization of the system performance.
b) Application Level- If you need to run the application program smoothly, then choose the application level of the utility software. For example, McAfee suites, Norton utility
It is a software which communicates as well as share the resources of the system by enabling the computers and the other peripheral devices. The instances of the network software are the UNIX, Windows NT based operating system, Novell Netware and many more.
The other name with which the firmware is known is the stored logic. Hardware and the software both combine and make the integration of the firmware. They are integrated on a single chip made of silicon. ROM chips is also another name of the firmware.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE COMPUTER
1. Benefits of the computer system-
a) Dangerous situations simulation
b) Availability of small amount of space but do large storage
c) Accurate and speedy calculations of the operations as compared to humans
d) Inquisitiveness available at the platform
2. Detriments of the system-
a) High Downtime
b) The high cost of the introduction
c) Hazardous to health
d) Can take the user to mislead and information misuse
This was about the basics of the computer system. Stay tuned for the next concepts written in accessible language.