Before the advent of the object-oriented approach, the other programming methods used had several detriments as well as limitations. The traditional programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, Pascal, also known as the procedural languages were not able to deal with the growing complexity and the size of the problems. Not even the structural programming approach was able to perform as per the requirements. During that era, the cases and the problems were turned out to be the horror stories for the programmers. The convolution and the complexity of all the systems based on programming increased. There are huge differences in the procedures oriented programming Vs object-oriented programming. So, tackle these things, the number of programmers was doubled for a particular program, the cost also saw a hike. But in that case, what we needed was the introduction of the problem solver which could fade away all the stress from the programmers’ head. The main problem was the unrestricted access to the functions for the global data. The other was the programming paradigm and their unrelated functions and that it provides the poor model of the data.
THE OBJECT-ORIENTED APPROACH
In this, the object-oriented languages were introduced and also a unit of the functions and data was used for the combination of the data to be operated as a single unit. These are called objects. The functions and their objects are called the member functions gives the ways of the data assessment. It is the approach which is used to solve the problems arisen from the traditional programming languages. Let us discuss the pros and cons of the technique in the programming field.
BENEFITS OF OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
The number of advantages and their richness which the new technique provides for the ease of the programmers is innumerable. It overshadows the detriments of the traditional structural programming language. It begins the facility for the writing applications by transforming the real-world objects into the code components. Enabling the users for the modelling of the real-world objects is done by object-oriented programming. Using the same terminology for the explanation of the program, and the domain of the business is the feature which the user gets with the help of the Object Oriented Programming.
The list of the advantages of the object-oriented programming languages are as follows-
1. Help in enabling the real-world modelling-
We will begin discussing the advantage in the form of an example. There are specific attributes of the object called a car. The list of the attributes has the elements, such as wheels, engine etc. When we begin using the principle of OOP, we will model the car as one of the objects in Java. The best thing is that it would have the same properties.
The developers are enabled with the understanding of the application at a faster pace in comparison to the other applications. This is possible with the creation of the applications that closely model the real world. The usage and the implementation of the applications which the OOP concepts are implemented are effective and efficient.
2. Aid in the improvement of the software-development productivity-
The approach which the latest type of programming language uses is modular, and it helps in the separation of the duties in the development of the object-based program. Moreover, it offers extensive features as well in the form of the including the new behaviours and the attributes. When we need to reuse the applications or programs, then the one name which strikes the mind is OOP. As it offers the facility of reusing the applications and the programs, it has become easy. It is possible because of its characteristics of being reusable, extensible, and modular. In these ways, we are able to enjoy the improvement of the software-development and their productivity in comparison to the traditional programming techniques which are based on the procedure.
3. Upgradation of the software maintenance-
One of the reasons for the improvement of the software maintainability is the feature of the object-oriented programming language being modular, extensive, and the reusability aspects. That is why the improvement of the maintenance of the software becomes easy and accessible for OOP. The modularity of the design is one of the factors which are to be updated without the requirement of the large-scale modifications.
4. Flexibility is provided for the existing application-
Design and the implementation of the solutions need flexibility, and the object-oriented programming approach provides this. Therefore, the upgradation and the maintenance of the see easy and continued cycles for the development of the application with the help of the object-oriented programming languages. All the requirements and the needs become accessible and easy to extend.
5. Decreased cost of development-
When we reuse any of the program or platform, we see an effect on the cost of the development. Same happens here; the object-oriented programming does provide the feature of reusing the software. In addition to this, it puts more effect on the analysis of the object-orientation as well as the design. Therefore, it results in the downfall of the cost of the development.
6. The increased and enriched eminence of the software-
Hike in the speed of the development of the software and the lowered cost of the development are the two benefits and the reasons for allowing more resources and time for the software verification. The factor on which the quality depends is the experience of the teams. This is why the object-oriented programming leads to the high eminence of the software.
There are some disadvantages along with the advantages and they are given as follows:
1. Enhanced and large size of the program-
We need to write a larger number of coding lines in the object-oriented approach in comparison to the previous and traditional procedural programs.
2. Great level of subjective acquaintance-
Writing the code and the thought process of the language is not natural for many students. Getting in touch with the concepts and getting used to it becomes hard for some. The complexity and the convolution of the programs are the reasons for this. The most challenging and hard for the practical use are the topics of polymorphism and inheritance.
3. Suitability is not universal-
We cannot use the approach for all the types of problems. Some of them are to be solved with the help of the functional programming style, procedure-based programming style and the logic-programming style. The application of the object-oriented programming is not effective in these cases.
4. Low Speed-
It leads to the slower programs in comparison to the procedure-based programs.