A Guide to MHRA Referencing Style

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Overview of MHRA referencing Style

MHRA is the Modern Humanities Research Association which is commonly used in the subjects of arts and humanities. There are very few and critical differences between the referencing styles of MLA and MHRA.  This review includes an overview of the referencing styles of books, articles, online sources, images/visual mediums, and other source types.

Key things to be remembered

  • In MHRA referencing style, there are two types of citations: footnotes and bibliographies.
  • Footnotes are marked in-text with the citation and detailed in the full at the bottom of the page.
  • Bibliographies include works which directly cited in pieces and examined in relation to the subject.

Footnotes on MHRA should be displayed as follows:

‘Ariani, Feybi 1 purposes that ……………….’

The full citation which is found at the bottom of the page would be represented as follows:

1 Ariani, Feybi Cranmer, Savvy: Environmental Sustainability. (Nottingham: Delectable Publications, 2012), p. 22.

Alternative citations of the same source in footnotes:

1 Ariani, Feybi, p. 27.

A full citation of this resource is found in the bibliography. In the bibliography, the surname of the author listed first. The list is alphabetically displayed by surname of author.

Citation of articles with MHRA referencing style

Citation of print journals

Last name, First initial. "Article Title," Journal name, Volume.Issue (Year): Page/s.

For example:

Ariani, Feybi "Environmental Sustainability: Research Growth and Trends," advance science letters, Volume 5.8 (2015): pp. 37-53.

Citations of journal articles accessed on a database or website

Last name, First initial. "Article Title." Journal name, Volume.Issue (Year): Page/s. <URL> [Accessed date].

For example:

Ariani, Feybi " Environmental Sustainability: Research Growth and Trends," advance science letters, Volume 5.8 (2015): pp. 37-53. <https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2015.5850> [Accessed 2 February 2019]

Citation of news or magazine

Footnotes

Nick Lyons and Jay Dickman, 'Hemingway's Many Hearted Fox River', National Geographic, June 1997, p. 118.

Michael Schmidt, 'Tragedy of Three Star-Crossed Lovers', Daily Telegraph, 1 February 1990, p. 14.

Bibliography

Lyons, Nick, and Jay Dickman, 'Hemingway's Many Hearted Fox River', National Geographic, June 1997, pp. 106-24

Schmidt, Michael, 'Tragedy of Three Star-Crossed Lovers', Daily Telegraph, 1 February 1990, p. 14

Citation of books with MHRA referencing style

A book citation with one author

Footnote

Paul B. Davis, The Penguin Dickens Companion: The Essential Reference to His Life and Work (London: Penguin, 1999), p. 219

Bibliography

Davis, Paul B., The Penguin Dickens Companion: The Essential Reference to His Life and Work (London: Penguin, 1999)

A book citation with two or three authors

Footnotes

Denise Chalmers, John Smith and Richard Fuller, Teaching for Learning at University: Theory and Practice, Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Series (London: Kogan Page, 1996), pp. 154-159.

Bibliography

Chalmers, Denise, John Smith, and Richard Fuller, Teaching for Learning at University: Theory and Practice (London: Kogan Page, 1996)

A book citation with four or more authors

If there are more than four authors in a book, then there is no need to place ‘et.al.’ you can either list all the authors of just the first name of the author.

Footnotes

Philip Wheelwright, and others, The Language of Poetry, ed. by Allan Tate, Mesures Series in Literary Criticism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1942)

Bibliography

Wheelwright, Philip, and others, The Language of Poetry, ed. by Allan Tate, Mesures Series in Literary Criticism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1942)

A book citation for chapter

Citing a single chapter in the larger book, it is essential to add page range (pp.) in which the chapter spans.

Footnotes

Bobby J. Chamberlain, „Striking a Balance: Amado and the Critics‟, in Jorge Amado: New Critical Essays (see Fitz, above), pp. 31-42.

Bibliography

Fitz, Earl E., 'The Vox Populi in the Novels of Jorge Amado and John Steinbeck', in Jorge Amado: New Critical Essays, ed. by Keith H. Brower, and Earl E. Fitz (New York, NY: Routledge, 2001), pp. 111-23

Citation of articles with MHRA referencing style

Citation of journal

Footnotes

Paul Dean, ‘Nothing that is So is So”: Twelfth Night and Transubstantiation’, Literature and Theology, 17 (2003), 281-97 (p. 287).

Bibliography

Dean, Paul, ‘Nothing that is So is So”: Twelfth Night and Transubstantiation’, Literature and Theology, 17 (2003), 281-97

 Citation of images/visual with MHRA referencing style

Citations for films/videos/DVDs:

Footnotes

Nick Lyons and Jay Dickman, 'Hemingway's Many Hearted Fox River', National Geographic, June 1997, p. 118.

Michael Schmidt, 'Tragedy of Three Star-Crossed Lovers', Daily Telegraph, 1 February 1990, p. 14.

Bibliography

Lyons, Nick, and Jay Dickman, 'Hemingway's Many Hearted Fox River', National Geographic, June 1997, pp. 106-24 Schmidt, Michael, 'Tragedy of Three Star-Crossed Lovers', Daily Telegraph, 1 February 1990, p. 14

With no author

Bibliography

Friedland, Jonathan, 'Across the Divide', Guardian, 15 January 2002, section G2, pp. 10-11

Gibbs, Nancy, 'If You Want to Humble an Empire', Time, 14 September 2001, Special Issue, pp. 34-50

Smith, Dinitia, 'After Four Centuries, Still Gaining Devotees', New Yow York Times, 22 April 1997, late edn, p.C12

Online journal articles

Footnotes

Burton M. Wheeler, 'Beyond Despair: Camus' "The Fall" and Van Eyck's "Adoration of the Lamb"', Contemporary Literature, 23 (1982), 343-64 [accessed 2 February 2019] (p. 349).

Bibliography

Wheeler, Burton M., 'Beyond Despair: Camus' "The Fall" and Van Eyck's "Adoration of the Lamb"', Contemporary Literature, 23 (1982), 343-64 [accessed 2 February 2019]

Articles in online databases

Floyd-Wilson, Mary, and others, 'Shakespeare and Embodiment: An E-Conversation', Shakespeare, 2 (2005), 1-13, in Literature Compass [accessed 2 February 2016]

Doren, Carl Van, 'Mark Twain', Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, 12 (1984), 423-55 (first publ. in The American Novel ([n.p.]: Macmillan, 1921), pp.157- 87), in Literature Resource Center [accessed 2 February 2016]

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