1. MIGUEL DE CERVANTES (1547 - 1616)
He gave us one of the best literary works ever written, Don Quixote, which has become the most published and translated book in history after the Bible. It is the first work of chivalry that demystified the chivalric tradition. Cervantes' work has been part of literature for more than 400 years.
2. GOETHE (1749 - 1832)
The German novelist, poet and dramatist who influenced deeply in Romanticism transferred to the paper one of the most widespread myths in literature, Faust. This tragedy, which has been revised later by authors such as Walter Benjamin or Thomas Mann, has also found its place in the cinema.
3. JANE AUSTEN (1775 - 1817)
The British novelist wrote some of the great classics of English literature, such as Pride and Prejudice or Emma. The great acceptance of Austen's works was also reflected in films based on her novels. Mansfield Park and Northanger Abbey were made into the movies with Patricia Rozema and Andrew Davies at the front.
The stories of Austen revolve around marriage and are led by women belonging to the bourgeoisie society, as its author.
4. MARY SHELLEY (1797 - 1851)
In 1818, the London writer gave life to the most famous monster of literature, which later would also become one of the most terrifying of cinema, Frankenstein. Adaptation of Mary Shelley's novel by director James Whale, along with the tender interpretation of this creature in search of his identity that made Boris Karloff, is considered one of the best horror movies of all time.
It is said that during dinner, Lord Byron challenged his guests to write a good horror story. Among them was Mary Shelley, who must have won the bet.
5. VICTOR HUGO (1802 - 1885)
One of the greatest works of the nineteenth century emerged from the pen of this French poet and writer, who defended the oppressed in the unforgettable, Les Misérables. A story of broken dreams, unrequited love, passion, sacrifice and redemption that came to the cinema from the hand of Jean-Paul Le Chanois in 1958. Victor Hugo wrote his masterpiece during his exile in Brussels. He fled France after organizing the resistance against Napoleon III.
7. CHARLES DICKENS (1812-1870)
The work of the English novelist who portrayed the Victorian era through humour, irony and social criticism, generated a great impact on the society of the time by the clear challenge to their conventions and stereotypes. Marriages between members of different social classes, open conversations about intimate life or daring to touch in public are just some of the examples of transgression in Dickens' novels that scandalized the conservative public, but at the same time allowed advances in the thought of the time.
Works of profound social sensitivity such as Oliver Twist, Our Mutual Friend, Hard Times, Great Expectations, The Mystery of Edwin Drood and Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby contributed enormously to the history of the literature, but also the cinema.
8. LEO TOLSTOY (1828 - 1910)
Assigned to the realist current, the Russian novelist tried with his works to reflect the society in which he lived. As a result of this concern, he wrote novels such as War and Peace and Anna Karenina. The latter had an early film version starring Greta Garbo in 1935.
Tolstoy became aware of the miserable situation in which the urban proletariat of Moscow was at the end of the 19th century, and following his convictions, he renounced all his assets and devoted himself to ploughing his fields.
9. OSCAR WILDE (1854 - 1900)
The ingenious Irish playwright and novelist, author of works such as The Picture of Dorian Gray, The Importance of Being Earnest andLady Windermere's Fan. He became one of the most significant personalities of his time, and he faced the hypocrisy, stupidity and taboos of British society. The intense life of the writer was reflected in Wilde, a film by Brian Gilbert. Wilde applied to his works the ideals of aestheticism, the philosophy that led him to consider beauty and art over morals.
10. FRANZ KAFKA (1883 - 1924)
The father of The Metamorphosis, wrote about the alienation of the individual and interpersonal conflicts through existentialism and expressionism, although some have also linked it with the magical realism that inspired GarcíaMárquez. In addition to the transformation in which Gregor Samsa was involved as soon as he woke up, Kafka is also the author of The Castle and The Trial, two novels that confront their protagonists to the power of law and bureaucracy. Michael Haneke and Orson Welles directed, respectively, the film adaptations of these Kafkaesque nightmares. Some scholars consider that Metamorphosis is a kind of Kafka's autobiography, based on his mood and his physical perception.
11. EDGAR ALLAN POE (1809 - 1849)
Generally recognized as one of the universal masters of the short story, of which he was one of the first practitioners in his country. He was a renovator of the Gothic novel, remembered primarily for his horror stories. Considered the inventor of the detective story, he also contributed several works to the emerging genre of science fiction.